Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Synodontidae
(Lizardfishes) > Synodontinae
Etymology: Synodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335); jaculum: jaculum (neuter noun in apposition) from the Latin word for javelin, in reference to the peculiar behavior of this species of launching itself off the bottom and swimming in midwater for prolonged periods.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 100 m (Ref. 11228). Tropical; 33°N - 32°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Line, Marquesan, and Society islands, north to the Izu Islands (Japan), south to New South Wales (Australia); Palau to Kosrae in Micronesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334); common length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3520)
Inhabits coral reefs. Commonly found on sand or rubble near coral heads. Feeds on shrimps and small fishes (Ref. 89972). Frequently caught with S. variegatus and S. englemani, using artisanal gear and trawls. Sold fresh and dried salted in markets. Solitary,in pairs or in small groups (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cressey, R.F. and R.S. Waples, 1984. Synodontidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Volume 4. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3520)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 29, mean 27.9 °C (based on 1488 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00217 - 0.00962), b=3.16 (2.98 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 90.8 [32.9, 219.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.731 [0.316, 1.444] mg/100g ; Protein = 15.8 [12.9, 18.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.0964 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.3 [13.8, 76.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 108 [25, 385] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.09 [0.55, 1.75] mg/100g (wet weight);