Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Synodontidae
(Lizardfishes) > Synodontinae
Etymology: Synodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Tanaka.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 60 - 96 m (Ref. 3520), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and Mozambique (Ref. 11228) to the Andaman Sea and southern Japan, south to Arafura Sea and New Caledonia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11228); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3520)
Found on sandy or mud bottoms (Ref. 11228). Sold fresh in markets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cressey, R.F. and R.S. Waples, 1984. Synodontidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Volume 4. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3520)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.2 - 28.1, mean 26 °C (based on 251 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00490 (0.00312 - 0.00769), b=3.27 (3.14 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.71 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 264 [86, 611] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.18 [0.52, 2.37] mg/100g ; Protein = 13.9 [10.8, 16.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.317 [0.095, 0.905] g/100g ; Selenium = 61 [23, 151] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 35.1 [7.4, 135.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.24 [0.67, 1.99] mg/100g (wet weight);