Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfish) > Mochokidae
(Squeakers or upside-down catfishes) > Mochokinae
Etymology: Synodontis: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Pellegrin.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical
Africa: upper Senegal, Niger, Volta and Chad basins (Ref. 57223). Also reported from the Chari-Logone (Ref. 57223) and Cross (Ref. 81251).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 31256)
Morphology | Morphometrics
spines: 0. Diagnosis: gill slits not extending ventrally beyond pectoral-fin insertions (Ref. 57223). Post-orbital length at most 60% of snout length (Ref. 57223, 81251). Entire margin of opercle smooth (Ref. 81251). Maxillary barbels shorter than head (Ref. 57223), at most 0.9 times HL (Ref. 81251), broadly fringed, without tubercles (Ref. 57223), unbranched, but with a light basal membrane extending over their entire length (Ref. 57223, 81251). Outer mandibular barbels with numerous and subdivided ramifications; branches of inner mandibular barbels also subdivided, and tuberculate (Ref. 57223, 81251). Width of premaxillary tooth plate comprised at most 1.8 times in eye diameter (Ref. 57223). Mandibular teeth moderately developed (Ref. 57223), movable (Ref. 81251), numbering 24-29 (Ref. 57223, 81251). Denticulations of pectoral-fin spine weak on outer margin, stronger on inner margin (Ref. 57223), with twice as many serrations along anterior edge as posterior (Ref. 81251). Dorsal-fin spine smooth on anterior margin (Ref. 57223, 81251), except for some apical serrations (Ref. 57223). Humeral process triangular (Ref. 57223), pointed (Ref. 81251), deep, slightly granulose and weakly keeled ventrally (Ref. 57223, 81251). Adipose fin long, low and close to rayed dorsal fin; outer margin of caudal fin black-edged (Ref. 57223, 81251). Caudal fin without single dark patch at base of each fin lobe (Ref. 81251).
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Maximum size recorded was 380mm total length (295mm standard length)(Ref. 57223).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Paugy, D. and T.R. Roberts, 2003. Mochokidae. p. 195-268 In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douce et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, Tome 2. Coll. Faune et Flore tropicales 40. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Museum National d'Histoire Naturalle, Paris, France and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France. 815 p. (Ref. 57223)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00593 - 0.03067), b=2.95 (2.77 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .