Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfish) > Mochokidae
(Squeakers or upside-down catfishes) > Mochokinae
Etymology: Synodontis: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Boulenger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.2 - 7.2; dH range: 6 - 20. Tropical; 22°C - 27°C (Ref. 12468); 10°N - 4°N
Africa: endemic to the Niger River basin, including the Benue (Ref. 57223). Report from the Ouémé (Benin) (Ref. 3202) refers to misidentified S. melanopterus specimens (see DVD version of Ref. 57223). Report from the Chari-Logone (Chad basin) in Central African Republic (see map in Ref. 57223) questionable.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 20 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 31256)
Morphology | Morphometrics
spines: 0. Diagnosis: gill slits not extending ventrally beyond pectoral-fin insertions; maxillary barbels distinctly fringed, longer than head, unbranched and lacking tubercles, but with a broad, long and dark basal membrane; outer mandibular barbels with few simple, short ramifications, inner mandibular barbels with tuberculate, subdivided branches; mandibular teeth moderately developed, numbering 45-64 (64 in the holotype); denticulations on pectoral-fin spines weaker on outer than on inner margin; dorsal-fin spine smooth anteriorly; first ray of dorsal and pectoral fins, as well as both caudal-fin lobes extended into filaments; humeral process pointed, granulose, its ventral margin keeled and bearing 3 backward-pointing spines (sometimes only 1 or 2 in young individuals); adipose fin normally developed and distinctly separated from rayed dorsal fin (Ref. 57223).
Coloration: ground colour uniformly greenish-yellow; series of black spots sometimes present on fins in young individuals (Ref. 57223).
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Maximum size 395mm TL, 297mm SL (Ref. 57223).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Paugy, D. and T.R. Roberts, 2003. Mochokidae. p. 195-268 In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douce et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, Tome 2. Coll. Faune et Flore tropicales 40. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Museum National d'Histoire Naturalle, Paris, France and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France. 815 p. (Ref. 57223)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00262 - 0.01453), b=3.09 (2.88 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 3.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .