Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Belonidae
Etymology: Strongylura: Greek, strongylos = round + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Girard.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 96339). Subtropical; 33°N - 15°S, 118°W - 11°W (Ref. 56981)
Eastern Pacific: San Francisco in California, USA to Peru, including the Galapagos Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 91.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); common length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9279)
Common in coastal and lagoon areas with mangroves (Ref. 9279). Also found in bays and harbors (Ref. 36575). Penetrate fresh water (Ref. 9279). Adults occur in small schools. Feed mainly on small fishes (Ref. 9279). Oviparous, with neustonic larvae (Ref. 36575). Eggs are attached to vegetation and floating objects via long filaments (Ref. 36575). Usually caught with the help of artificial lights (Ref. 9279). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9279).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.7 - 28.9, mean 25.1 °C (based on 124 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00123 (0.00053 - 0.00284), b=3.11 (2.93 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 104 [42, 248] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.79 [0.85, 3.16] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [15.3, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.828 [0.307, 2.379] g/100g ; Selenium = 28 [11, 68] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 34.8 [9.0, 151.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.862 [0.528, 1.458] mg/100g (wet weight);