Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Macrouridae
(Grenadiers or rattails)
Etymology: Squalogadus: Latin, squalidus = pale, weak + Latin, gadus = a fish, cod? (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Gilbert & Hubbs.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 600 - 1740 m (Ref. 75154), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C -
Atlantic and Pacific: Eastern Atlantic: off Gabon. Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico. Western Pacific: off Japan; New Zealand (Ref. 5755). Southeast Pacific: Nazca and Sala-y-Gomez.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3587)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Dark brown, becoming blackish on the gular and branchiostegal membranes. Inside of mouth and gill cover black. Head fully scaled, mandibular band is narrow (Ref. 37108). Orbit tiny, about 10% of head length, placed forward of small, inferior mouth. Chin barbel absent. First gill slit not restricted by membranous folds of skin, outer gill rakers long, slender. Branchiostegal rays 7. Anus immediately before anal fin. Tail straplike. Anal fin long, poorly developed. No light organ. Swimbladder regressed. (Ref 1371)
Live at midwater as well as benthopelagic levels (Ref. 37108).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Geistdoerfer, P., 1990. Macrouridae. p. 541-563. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3587)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.5 - 9.1, mean 5.3 °C (based on 733 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00209 (0.00101 - 0.00430), b=3.19 (3.01 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .