Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 425 - 472 m (Ref. 28767). Deep-water; 30°N - 18°N, 98°W - 81°W
Western Central Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6902)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Leaf-like expansion of snout. Skin naked. Pelvic fins are leg like. No dorsal fins. Upper surface ash gray, lower surface pale grayish white, outer posterior belt of pectorals sooty gray, snout narrowly and irregularly edged with black, tail sooty at base (Ref. 6902).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Last, P.R., S. Weigmann and L. Yang, 2016. Changes to the nomenclature of the skates (Chondrichthyes: Rajiformes). In: Last and Yearsley (eds.). Rays of the World: Supplementary Information. CSIRO Special Publication. 11-34. (Ref. 118749)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.6 - 12.8, mean 10 °C (based on 7 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .