Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: Sphaeramia: Greek, sphaira = ball + Greek, amia = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 14 m (Ref. 11890). Tropical; 31°N - 23°S, 94°E - 175°W
Indo-Pacific: Java to Fiji, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the Great Barrier Reef. Recently recorded from Tonga (Ref. 53797).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
Forms aggregations among the branches of Porites nigrescens and P. cylindrica in sheltered bays and lagoons (Ref. 1602, 48635). Disperses at night to feed close to the bottom (Ref. 9710). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35407). Popular aquarium fish (Ref. 37816).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Are mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 26.3 - 29.3, mean 28.6 °C (based on 1571 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.00674 - 0.03099), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.36 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 154 [88, 285] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.993 [0.635, 1.751] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.8, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.158 [0.092, 0.270] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.8 [12.7, 50.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 58.9 [17.9, 193.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.65 [1.08, 2.51] mg/100g (wet weight);