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Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ruffe
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Gymnocephalus cernua
Picture by Bednarzik, J.

Classificatie / Names Lokale namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes(Genus, Soort(en)) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Perciformes/Percoidei (Perchs) > Percidae (Perches) > Percinae
Etymology: Gymnocephalus: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; zoet water; brak water benthopelagisch; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 8 - 12; potamodroom (Ref. 51243); diepte 2 - 85 m (Ref. 121625). Temperate; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 13371); 74°N - 43°N, 6°W - 169°E

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystemen | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

Europe: Caspian, Black, Baltic and North Sea basins; Great Britain; north to about 69° N in Scandinavia. Asia: Aral Sea basin, Arctic Ocean basin eastward to Kolyma drainage. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Lengte bij maturiteit / Grootte / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm 10.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL mannelijk / geslacht onbekend; (Ref. 556); common length : 12.0 cm TL mannelijk / geslacht onbekend; (Ref. 556); max. gepubliceerd gewicht: 400.00 g (Ref. 556); max. gerapporteerde leeftijd: 10 Jaren (Ref. 59043)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Dorsale stekels (totaal): 11 - 19; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 11-16; Anale stekels 2; Anale zachte stralen: 5 - 6; Wervels: 35 - 36. Distinguished uniquely from its congeners by its body depth 24-27% SL. Differs further from other members of the genus by the combination of having a flank yellowish with numerous, small, irregular, dark blotches and having 11-16 dorsal spines (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 16 to 17 rays (Ref. 40476). Dorsal fins are fused. Color brownish with dark spots (Ref. 35388).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (bv. epibenthic)

Inhabits eutrophic lakes, lowland and piedmont rivers. Most abundant in estuaries of large rivers, brackish lakes with salinities up to 10-12 ppt and reservoirs. In general, its abundance increases with increased eutrophication (Ref. 59043). Reported to prefer still or slow-flowing water with soft bottom and without vegetation (Ref. 59043) and deep water with deposits of sand and gravel (Ref. 9696). Can tolerate some degradation of the environment (Ref. 30578). Can co-exist in deep lakes with Perca fluviatilis. Both species partly occur at different depths with Gymnocephalus cernua being more abundant in deeper layers (Ref. 59043). The membranous external walls of the head canals of this species provide high directional sensitivity; can feed at night in the dark using the lateral line system; feeds on zooplankton, chironomids, oligochaetes and amphipods (Ref. 10999). Pelagic in coastal lakes and tidal estuaries, preying on zooplankton and fish. Spawns on a variety of substrates at depths of about 3 m or less (Ref. 59043). White to yellow eggs in sticky strands are found on rocks and weed in shallow water (Ref. 41678). Used as bait for pike (Ref. 6258). Females live up to 10 year while males up to 7 years (Ref. 59043).

Levenscyclus en paargedrag Maturiteit | Voortplanting | Paaien | Eieren | Fecunditeit | Larven

Eggs turn adhesive on contact with water and stick to stones or plants. Females lay eggs in two or more portions, usually separated by about 30 days in summer. First portion of eggs is larger the second portion. Larvae without or with only a brief, pelagic larval stage, switching early to benthic life, secretive and solitary, not forming schools. Larval survival is poor below 10°C and above 20°C (Ref. 59043).

Hoofdreferentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator | Medewerkers

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 125652)

  Niet bedreigd (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaar voor de mens

  Potential pest





Gebruik door de mens

Visserij: van minder commercieel belang; sportvis: ja; aas: usually
FAO - visserij: aanvoer; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Meer informatie

Leeftijd/Grootte
Groei
Lengte-gewicht
Lengte-lengte
Lengtefrequenties
Morfometrie
Morfologie
Larven
Larvale populatiedynamiek
Rekrutering
Abundantie
BRUVS
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Aquacultuurprofiel
Kweeklijnen
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Internetbronnen

AFORO (otoliths) | Exoten/Invasieve soorten database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Bekijk FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Genus, Soort(en) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - visserij: aanvoer; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genoom, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Nationale databanken | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Publieke aquaria | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: ga naar, zoek | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Fylogenetische diversiteitsindex (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00893 - 0.01070), b=2.99 (2.96 - 3.02), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trofisch niveau (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.57 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.8 (2.3 - 5.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 21 growth studies.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179):  Gemiddeld, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 1,4-4,4 jaar (K=0.1-0.48; tm=1-2).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (58 of 100).
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 44 [20, 91] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.287 [0.151, 0.552] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.9 [15.5, 18.5] % ; Omega3 = 1 [0, 3] g/100g ; Selenium = 11.5 [4.0, 28.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 54.9 [14.4, 216.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.02 [0.58, 1.68] mg/100g (wet weight);