分类 / Names
俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(属, 种) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Cyprininae
Etymology: Carassius: Latinization of , karass, karausche, European crucian carp (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 淡水; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 5 - ? m (Ref. 2163). 溫帶; 2°C - 22°C (Ref. 1672); 69°N - 35°N, 10°W - 169°E
Eurasia: North, Baltic, White, Barents, Black and Caspian Sea basins; Aegean Sea basin only in Maritza drainage; eastward to Kolyma drainage (Siberia); westward to Rhine and eastern drainages of England. Absent from North Sea basin in Sweden and Norway. In Baltic basin north to about 66°N. Widely introduced to Italy, England and France but possibly often confused with Carassius gibelio (Ref. 59043). At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.
歐亞大陸: 西班牙橫越歐洲與中北亞到中國北方。 歐洲的魚動物相的一個建立良好要素。 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。
大小 / 重量 / 年龄
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 64.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 6114); common length : 15.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大体重: 3.0 kg (Ref. 556); 最大年龄: 10 年 (Ref. 59043)
背棘 (总数): 3 - 4; 背的软条 (总数): 13-22; 臀棘 2-3; 臀鳍软条: 5 - 7; 脊椎骨: 32. Diagnosed from its congeners in Europe by having the following characters: body golden-green shining color; last simple anal and dorsal rays weakly serrated; 23-33 gill rakers; lateral line with 31-36 scales; free edge of dorsal convex; anal fin usually with 6½ branched rays; and peritoneum white (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 18-20 rays (Ref. 2196). No barbels. The third dorsal and anal-fin rays are strong and serrated posteriorly.
尾鳍有 18-20个鳍条。 (参考文献 2196) 没有触须。 第三个背鳍与臀鳍-鳍条在后部地是强的与锯齿状的。
Adults occur in shallow ponds, lakes rich in vegetation and slow moving rivers. They burrow in mud in the dry season or during winter (Ref. 2163). Usually restricted to densely vegetated backwaters and oxbows of lowland rivers. Can survive at high temperatures and at very low oxygen concentrations during summer and under ice cover (Ref. 59043). Tolerates cold, organic pollutants, and low oxygen levels in the water (Ref. 30578). Feeds all day but mainly at night on plankton, benthic invertebrates, plant materials and detritus. Usually does not occur in waters with rich ichthyofauna and abundant predatory species, but very abundant in the absence of other fish species. Spawns in dense submerged vegetation (Ref. 59043). Marketed fresh and frozen; eaten fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988). Live up to about 10 years. There is a gradual but continuing extirpation in many water bodies, especially in Danube drainage and central Europe, possibly to due competition with introduced Carassius gibelio in non-optimal habitats (Ref. 59043).
出现于水浅的池塘,湖丰富的在植物与缓慢移动的河。 穴居在泥中乾季时或在冬天期间.(参考文献 2163) 在水容忍寒冷，有机的污染物质与低溶氧量。 吃植物，昆虫幼生与浮游生物。 (参考文献 30578) 在市场上销售生鲜和冷冻; 油炸后食用, 火烤了而且烧烤了。 (参考文献 9988)
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | 卵 | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼
Females spawn multiple times during the spawning period (Ref. 88808). Reproduction in May-June in shallow water with dense vegetation, eggs 130000-250000/female adhere to plants, hatch after 4-8 days (Ref. 2163). Individual female spawn with several males. Males follow ripe females, often with much splashing. Eggs are sticky and are attached to water plants (Ref. 59043).歐亞大陸: 西班牙橫越歐洲與中北亞到中國北方。 歐洲的魚動物相的一個建立良好要素。 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 水族馆: 商业性; 诱饵: occasionally
合作者照片Stamps, Coins Misc.声音神经毒速度泳型鳃区Otoliths脑重体重比眼睛色素
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.01072 - 0.01777), b=3.03 (2.98 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.24 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=2).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 103 [35, 277] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.779 [0.364, 1.618] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.3 [16.0, 18.7] % ; Omega3 = 1.45 [0.61, 3.68] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.1 [6.7, 51.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.6 [4.6, 67.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.677 [0.395, 1.214] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.