Actinopteri > Perciformes/Gasterosteoidei
(Sticklebacks) 刺魚目 (Sticklebacks)
(Sticklebacks and tubesnouts) 刺魚科 (Sticklebacks and tubesnouts)
Etymology: Gasterosteus: Greek, gaster = stomach + Greek, osteon = bone (Ref. 45335); aculeatus: aculeatus meaning spined (Ref. 1998).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 100 m (Ref. 50550). 溫帶; 4°C - 20°C (Ref. 1672); 72°N - 25°N, 117°E - 60°E (Ref. 26213)
Circumarctic and temperate regions: Extending south to the Black Sea, southern Italy, Iberian Peninsula, North Africa; in Eastern Asia north of Japan (35°N), in North America north of 30-32°N; Greenland.
在北極圈與溫帶區域的極地附近, 延伸南至黑海，義大利南部，伊伯利亞半島，北非; 在日本 (35 ° N) 東方亞洲北方, 在 30-32 ° N 北美洲北方; 格陵蘭。
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡
Maturity: Lm 5.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 35388); common length : 5.1 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 1998); 最大年齡: 8 年 (Ref. 72489)
背棘 (總數): 2 - 4; 背的軟條 (總數): 10-14; 臀棘 1; 臀鰭軟條: 7 - 11; 脊椎骨: 29 - 34. Distinguished uniquely from its congeners in Europe by having trunk and caudal peduncle covered by a complete series of 29-35 bony scutes. Other characters important to separate this species from other species of the genus include posterior edge of scutes crenulated and scutes forming a lateral keel on caudal peduncle. Scutes may be missing on posterior part of trunk in hybrid zone with Gasterosteus gymnurus and in some isolated freshwater populations of northeastern Europe (Ref. 59043). Identified by the 3 to 4 sharp, free spines before the dorsal fin, the pelvic fin reduced to a sharp spine and a small ray, and the series of plates along the sides of the body (Ref. 27547). Gill rakers long and slender, 17 to 25 on the first arch or strictly freshwater forms, 1 or 2 more in anadromous forms; lateral line with microscopic pores (Ref. 27547). The anadromous form is fully plated, with up to 37 plates on the sides and a rather pronounced keel on each side of the caudal peduncle (Ref. 27547). Dorsal spines separated from each other and from the soft-rayed fins, each spine having a reduced membrane attached to its posterior side; anal spine free from rest of the fin; posterior margin of pectorals nearly truncate; caudal truncate to slightly indented (Ref. 27547). Freshwater forms usually mottled brown or greenish; anadromous forms silvery green to bluish black (Ref. 27547). A few isolated populations are black (Ref. 27547). Sides usually pale; belly yellow, white or silvery (Ref. 27547). Fins pale; pectoral rays often have dark dots (Ref. 27547). Breeding males (except for black forms) become brilliant bluish or green with blue or green eyes, and the forward part of the body, especially the breast region, turns bright red or orange (Ref. 27547). Caudal fin with 12 rays (Ref. 2196).
在背鰭之前鑑定特徵為 3 到 4根銳利又自由的棘了, 腹鰭縮小成一根銳利的棘與一個小的鰭條了，而且成列的碟沿著身體的側邊。 (參考文獻 27547) 鰓耙長且細的,17 到 25 在第一個弓或完全淡水的表格上, 在溯河洄游產卵的型式中的 1 或 2 更多; 側線有微小的孔。 (參考文獻 27547) 溯河洄游產卵的形式完全甲胄, 側邊上多達 37個碟與在尾梗的兩邊上一個相當明顯的龍骨脊。 (參考文獻 27547) 背棘與彼此與從有軟鰭的鰭分開了,有一個的每根棘縮小的被依附於它的在後部側邊的薄膜了; 臀鰭硬棘分離其餘的鰭; 胸鰭的後緣幾乎截形; 尾部的截形到些微地切割成鋸齒狀.(參考文獻 27547) 淡水的類型通常褐色班點或呈綠色的; 溯河洄游產卵的型式銀色的綠色到藍黑色的.(參考文獻 27547) 一些孤立的族群是黑色的。 (參考文獻 27547) 側邊通常灰白的; 腹面黃色的﹐白色的或銀色的.(參考文獻 27547) 鰭灰白的; 胸鰭鰭條時常有深色的點。 (參考文獻 27547) 繁殖期的雄性 (除了黑色的型式) 變成色彩豔麗藍色或者綠色的有藍色或者綠色的眼, 與身體的向前部份尤其胸部區域, 變鮮紅色或橘色.(參考文獻 27547) 尾鰭有 12個鰭條。 (參考文獻 2196)
Adults occur in fresh waters, estuaries and coastal seas (Ref. 4119). Anadromous, with numerous non-anadromous populations in brackish or pure freshwater, rarely in marine waters. In the sea, confined to coastal waters. In freshwater, adults prefer to live in small stream but may occur in a variety of habitats including lakes and large rivers (Ref. 59043). Inhabit shallow vegetated areas, usually over mud or sand (Ref. 5723). Form schools. Young associated with drifting seaweed (Ref. 12114, 12115). Juveniles move to the sea (anadromous populations) or to deeper, larger water bodies (freshwater populations) in July-August, forming large feeding schools (Ref. 59043). Feed on worms, crustaceans, larvae and adult aquatic insects, drowned aerial insects, and small fishes; has also been reported to feed on their own fry and eggs (Ref. 1998). Eggs are found in nests constructed from plant material (Ref. 41678). Males build, guard and aerate the nest where the eggs are deposited (Ref. 205). Maximum length in freshwater is 8 cm while in saltwater is 11 cm (Ref. 35388). Occasionally taken commercially in Scandinavia and processed into fishmeal and oil (Ref. 28219, 28964). Commonly used as a laboratory animal (Ref. 1998). A large bibliography is available at www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hall/1345/stickbibl.html.
出現於淡水，河口與沿岸海洋。 (參考文獻 4119) 在海洋中, 侷限於沿岸水域。 棲息於水淺的有植物生長的區域, 通常在泥或沙子上面.(參考文獻 5723) 形成魚群。 幼魚伴隨著漂流的海草.。 (參考文獻 12114,12115) 吃蠕蟲，甲殼動物, 仔魚與被淹死陸生昆蟲 , 與小魚的成魚水生昆蟲; 已經也被報告覓食他們自己的魚苗與卵.(參考文獻 1998) 溯河洄游產卵與 nerito-大洋性.(參考文獻 58426) 卵被發現於由植物構成的巢。 (參考文獻 41678) 最大的長度在淡水中是 8 公分然而在鹽水的是 11 公分.(參考文獻 35388) 偶然地在斯堪的那維亞半島商業地採而且加工成魚漿或魚油.(參考文獻 28219,28964) 通常用作.一個實驗用動物。 (參考文獻 1998) 一個大的參考書目在 www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/門廳/1345/ stickbibl.html 是有用的。
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | 卵 | 孕卵數 | 仔魚
Spawning behavior is similar for both freshwater and anadromous forms (Ref. 28966). Just before breeding, males become very territorial. The male builds a nest of plant-material glued together with spiggin, a protein produced in the kidney (Ref. 52349). Once a nest is built, the male entices the female into the nest by performing a courtship dance which is a series of zigzag movements (Ref. 1998). A receptive female follows the male who points the opening of the nest by posing above it with his head down. The female enters the nest, deposits up to a few hundred eggs, and is driven out by the male after eggs have been deposited. The male then enters the nest to fertilize the eggs. The male can choose to court another female to enter the nest and lay eggs before entering himself to fertilise the deposited eggs. Females may lay eggs in several nests over a period of several days or may be courted by the same male (Ref. 27547). The male guards and ventilates the eggs and young (Ref. 1998). During spawning season, males develop a bright orange to red belly and blue-green flank and eyes. Eggs hatch in 7-8 days. Anadromous forms usually die of exhaustion after spawning cycle. Freshwater individuals are able to complete several cycles within one year or sometimes over several years (Ref. 59043).在北極圈與溫帶區域的極地附近, 延伸南至黑海，義大利南部，伊伯利亞半島，北非; 在日本 (35 ° N) 東方亞洲北方, 在 30-32 ° N 北美洲北方; 格陵蘭。
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)
漁業: 低經濟; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 2 - 13.5, mean 8 °C (based on 2296 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00663 - 0.01439), b=3.09 (2.99 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
營養階層 (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 高度, 族群倍增時間少於 15個月 (K=0.6-1.8; tm=1; tmax=4; Fec=80).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 313 [151, 655] mg/100g ; Iron = 3.02 [1.68, 5.43] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [15.9, 18.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.997 [0.443, 2.361] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.3 [8.1, 63.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 32.4 [8.5, 113.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.66 [1.11, 2.53] mg/100g (wet weight);