";} } ?> Chitala chitala, Clown knifefish : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

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Chitala chitala (Hamilton, 1822)

Clown knifefish
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Chitala chitala
Picture by Mahalder, B.

Classificatie / Names Lokale namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes(Genus, Soort(en)) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Osteoglossiformes (Bony tongues) > Notopteridae (Featherbacks or knifefishes) > Notopterinae
Etymology: Chitala: Bangladesh local name;  chitala: From rivers of Bengal & Behar..
More on author: Hamilton.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; zoet water demersaal; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19. Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060)

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystemen | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

Asia: Indus, Ganges-Brahmaputra and Mahanadi river basins in India. No valid records from Irrawaddy, Salween or other river basins of Myanmar. Reports of Chitala chitala from Thailand and Indo-China were based on Chitala ornata and those from Malaysia and Indonesia on Chitala lopis.

Lengte bij maturiteit / Grootte / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm 75.5  range ? - 91 cm
Max length : 122 cm SL mannelijk / geslacht onbekend; (Ref. 4832); common length : 75.0 cm SL mannelijk / geslacht onbekend; (Ref. 2686)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Dorsale stekels (totaal): 0; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 9; Anale stekels 0; Anale zachte stralen: 117 - 127. The only species in which subadults and adults have a series of transverse gold or silver bars on the dorsum, but this color feature is not always present (Ref. 7431). Differs from C. ornata in never having ocellated spots and from C. blanci and C. lopis in never having a black spot on the pectoral fin base (Ref. 7431).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (bv. epibenthic)

Obligate air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Adults inhabit freshwater rivers, lakes, beels, nullahs in the plains (Ref. 41236), reservoirs, canals and ponds (Ref. 1479). Feed on aquatic insects, mollusks, shrimps and small fishes (Ref. 1479). Females lay eggs usually on stake or stump of wood, males fan them with tail, keep them aerated and silt-free, guard them against small catfish and other predators; complete give-away to fishermen; females not observed at egg posts; moderately important food fish (Ref. 2686). Spawn once a year during May to August (Ref. 6459).

Levenscyclus en paargedrag Maturiteit | Voortplanting | Paaien | Eieren | Fecunditeit | Larven

The male tends the clutch (Ref. 2060).

Hoofdreferentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator | Medewerkers

Roberts, T.R., 1992. Systematic revision of the old world freshwater fish family Notopteridae. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(4):361-383. (Ref. 7431)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 125652)

  Gevoelig (NT) ; Date assessed: 28 May 2010

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaar voor de mens

  Harmless





Gebruik door de mens

Visserij: van minder commercieel belang; Aquacultuur: commercieel; sportvis: ja; Aquarium: Commercieel
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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Lokale namen
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Ecotoxicologie
Voortplanting
Maturiteit
Paaien
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Estimates based on models

Fylogenetische diversiteitsindex (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5166   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trofisch niveau (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.59 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179):  Gemiddeld, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 1,4-4,4 jaar (tm=2).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100).
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 85.7 [31.9, 252.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.42 [0.58, 3.22] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.3 [15.8, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.275 [0.122, 0.660] g/100g ; Selenium = 78.8 [31.3, 226.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16.7 [3.8, 63.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.716 [0.383, 1.756] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.