Torpedo torpedo, Common torpedo : aquarium

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Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common torpedo
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Torpedo torpedo   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Torpedo torpedo (Common torpedo)
Torpedo torpedo
Picture by Wirtz, P.

Classification / Names Nomi Comuni | Sinonimi | Catalog of Fishes(Genere, Specie) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchi (squali e razze) (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes (Electric rays) > Torpedinidae (Electric rays)
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marino demersale; distribuzione batimetrica 2 - 400 m (Ref. 4430), usually ? - 70 m (Ref. 27000). Deep-water; 48°N - 18°S, 19°W - 38°E (Ref. 114953)

Distribuzione Stati | Aree FAO | Ecosystems | Presenze | Point map | Introduzioni | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: southern Bay of Biscay and throughout the Mediterranean to Angola. Most common in tropical waters.

Size / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 13417); 41.0 cm TL (female); common length : 30.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 13417); common length :39 cm TL (female)

Biologia     Glossario (es. epibenthic)

Found on soft bottoms, usually inshore but occasionally deeper. Feeds on small fishes and also benthic invertebrates. Ovoviviparous, with 3-21 in a litter (Ref. 12951, Ref. 114953). Size at birth 9 cm (Ref. 12951). Capable of inflicting a severe shock of up to 200 volts.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).

Main reference Upload your references | Bibliografia | Coordinatore : Carvalho, Marcelo | Collaboratori

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Raies et autres batoides. p. 845-886. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identificationpour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Mèditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3261)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)

  Vulnerabile, vedi Lista Rossa IUCN (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 04 August 2020

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Other (Ref. 4690)





Human uses

Pesca: di nessun interesse; Acquario: Acquari pubblici
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

Informazioni ulteriori

Stati
Aree FAO
Ecosystems
Presenze
Introduzioni
Stocks
Ecologia
Dieta
Prede
Consumo di cibo
Razione
Nomi Comuni
Sinonimi
Metabolismo
Predatori
Ecotossicologia
Riproduzione
Maturità
Deposizione
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Uova
Egg development
Age/Size
Accrescimento
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometria
Morfologia
Larve
Dinamica popolazioni larvali
Reclutamento
Abbondanza
BRUVS
Bibliografia
Acquacoltura
Profilo di acquacoltura
Varietà
Genetica
Frequenze alleliche
Ereditarietà
Malattie
Elaborazione
Nutrients
Mass conversion
Collaboratori
Immagini
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suoni
Ciguatera
Velocità
Modalità di nuoto
Area branchiale
Otoliths
Cervelli
Vista

Strumenti

Special reports

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Fonti Internet

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Genere, Specie | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Database Nazionali | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Acquari pubblici | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, ricerca | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 13 - 20.9, mean 15.6 °C (based on 78 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.01327 - 0.02275), b=2.92 (2.84 - 3.00), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 10.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179):  Basso, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 4.5 - 14 anni (K=0.11).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):   (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 12.1 [2.1, 37.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.291 [0.074, 0.786] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.4 [11.7, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.431 [0.194, 0.947] g/100g ; Selenium = 13.8 [3.8, 34.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 29.7 [8.1, 107.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.292 [0.143, 0.573] mg/100g (wet weight);