Torpedo torpedo, Common torpedo : aquarium

Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common torpedo
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Torpedo torpedo   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Torpedo torpedo
Picture by Wirtz, P.

Klassifizierung / Names Namen | Synonyme | Catalog of Fishes(Gattung, Arten) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (Haie und Rochen) (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes (Electric rays) > Torpedinidae (Electric rays)
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ökologie

; seewasser demersal; tiefenbereich 2 - 400 m (Ref. 4430), usually ? - 70 m (Ref. 27000). Deep-water; 48°N - 18°S, 19°W - 38°E (Ref. 114953)

Verbreitung Länder | FAO Gebiete | Ecosystems | Vorkommen | Point map | Einführungen | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: southern Bay of Biscay and throughout the Mediterranean to Angola. Most common in tropical waters.

Size / Gewicht / Alter

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 13417); 41.0 cm TL (female); common length : 30.0 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 13417); common length :39 cm TL (female)

Biologie     Fachlexikon (Englisch) (z.B. epibenthic)

Found on soft bottoms, usually inshore but occasionally deeper. Feeds on small fishes and also benthic invertebrates. Ovoviviparous, with 3-21 in a litter (Ref. 12951, Ref. 114953). Size at birth 9 cm (Ref. 12951). Capable of inflicting a severe shock of up to 200 volts.

Life cycle and mating behavior Geschlechtsreife | Fortpflanzung | Ablaichen | Eier | Fecundity | Larven

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).

Hauptreferenz Upload your references | Referenzen | Koordinator : Carvalho, Marcelo | Partner

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Raies et autres batoides. p. 845-886. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identificationpour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Mèditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3261)

IUCN Rote Liste Status (Ref. 125652)

  gefährdet, siehe IUCN Red List (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 04 August 2020

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Bedrohung für Menschen

Other (Ref. 4690)





Nutzung durch Menschen

Fischereien: nicht kommerziell; Aquarium: Öffentliche Aquarien
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Mehr Information

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Ablaichen
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Eier
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Otoliths
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Sehfähigkeit

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Internet Quellen

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | FishWatcher Einträge suchen | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Gattung, Arten | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: Genom, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Nationale Datenbanken | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Öffentliche Aquarien | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Gehe zu, Suchen | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 13 - 20.9, mean 15.6 °C (based on 78 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.01327 - 0.02275), b=2.92 (2.84 - 3.00), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 10.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Widerstandsfähigkeit (Ref. 120179):  niedrig, Verdopplung der Population dauert 4,5 - 14 Jahre. (K=0.11).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 12.1 [2.1, 37.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.291 [0.074, 0.786] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.4 [11.7, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.431 [0.194, 0.947] g/100g ; Selenium = 13.8 [3.8, 34.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 29.7 [8.1, 107.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.292 [0.143, 0.573] mg/100g (wet weight);