Torpedo torpedo, Common torpedo : aquarium

Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common torpedo
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Torpedo torpedo   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Torpedo torpedo
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes (Electric rays) 電鰩目 (Electric rays) > Torpedinidae (Electric rays) 電 (Electric rays)
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 居於水底的; 深度上下限 2 - 400 m (Ref. 4430), usually ? - 70 m (Ref. 27000). 深水域; 48°N - 18°S, 19°W - 38°E (Ref. 114953)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: southern Bay of Biscay and throughout the Mediterranean to Angola. Most common in tropical waters.
東大西洋: 比斯開灣南部與在地中海到安哥拉各處。 常見於熱帶水域。

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 13417); 41.0 cm TL (female); common length : 30.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 13417); common length :39 cm TL (female)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Found on soft bottoms, usually inshore but occasionally deeper. Feeds on small fishes and also benthic invertebrates. Ovoviviparous, with 3-21 in a litter (Ref. 12951, Ref. 114953). Size at birth 9 cm (Ref. 12951). Capable of inflicting a severe shock of up to 200 volts.

棲息於軟質底部了, 通常近海但是偶然比較深的。 吃小魚以及底棲的無脊椎動物。 卵胎生的, 有三個 -21 一胎.(參考文獻 12951) 出生時的大小 9 公分。 (參考文獻 12951) 能夠施放向上到的嚴重驚嚇 200 伏特。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).東大西洋: 比斯開灣南部與在地中海到安哥拉各處。 常見於熱帶水域。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Carvalho, Marcelo | 合作者

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Raies et autres batoides. p. 845-886. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identificationpour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Mèditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3261)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 125652)

  次級保育類動物, 見 IUCN 紅皮書 (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 04 August 2020

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

另外地 (Ref. 4690)





人類使用

漁業: 沒有興趣; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

更多資訊

俗名
同種異名
新陳代謝
捕食者
生態毒物學
繁殖
成熟度
產卵場
產卵群集
孕卵數

卵發育
年龄/大小
成長
長度-重量
長度-長度
長度-頻率
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型態特徵
仔魚
稚魚動力學
入添量
豐度
BRUVS
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養殖資訊
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聲音
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Otoliths
腦重體重比
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工具

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網路資源

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 檢查 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因組, 核甘 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 國家資料庫 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公眾的水族館 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 樹狀分類階層 | Wikipedia: , 搜尋 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 動物學的記錄

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 13 - 20.9, mean 15.6 °C (based on 78 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.01327 - 0.02275), b=2.92 (2.84 - 3.00), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 10.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.11).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 12.1 [2.1, 37.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.291 [0.074, 0.786] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.4 [11.7, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.431 [0.194, 0.947] g/100g ; Selenium = 13.8 [3.8, 34.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 29.7 [8.1, 107.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.292 [0.143, 0.573] mg/100g (wet weight);