(Silversides) > Atherinidae
(Silversides) > Atherininae
Etymology: Atherina: Greek, atherina, the Greek name for the eperlane; 1770 (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Risso.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
marinhas; Água doce; estuarina demersal; anfídromo (Ref. 59043); intervalo de profundidade 1 - ? m. Subtropical; 53°N - 20°N, 18°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal and Spain to Nouadhibou in Mauritania and Madeira, and throughout the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Isolated populations on coasts of England and the Netherlands (Ref. 5980). Previously, two subspecies were recognized in Russian waters: Atherina boyeri pontica (Eichwald, 1838) from the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and Atherina boyeri caspia (Eichwald, 1838) from the Caspian Sea (Ref. 26334).
Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm 5.8, range 5 - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 30578); Idade máx. registada: 4 anos (Ref. 59043)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 7 - 10; Raios dorsais moles (total): 8-16; Espinhos anais 2; Raios anais moles: 10 - 18. Eye diameter wider than snout length (Ref. 35388).
A very euryhaline species, where adults are frequently found in brackish waters and more sporadically in freshwater (Ref. 3788), preferring still or slow flowing waters in freshwater (Ref. 59043). They are found in lower parts of rivers, estuaries, coastal lakes and sea; pelagic in lakes (Ref. 59043). Adults occur in great schools. They are carnivorous, feeding on small crustaceans, worms, mollusks (Ref. 5980) and fish larvae (Ref. 35388) in lakes and estuaries, and on benthos in rivers (Ref. 59043). Can usually live 1 to 2 years, rarely up to 4 years. Some populations undergo spawning migrations into estuaries. Mature individuals are fractional spawners, larger individuals spawn for a longer period. Eggs are demersal, with long hairy appendages attaching them to the substrate consisting of filamentous algae, often at depths of 2 to 6 m. Larvae are pelagic often forming schools close to the shores (Ref. 59043).
Maugé, L.A., 1990. Atherinidae. p. 604-605. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4499)
Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 125652)
Ameaça para o homem
Pescarias: espécies comerciais
ColaboradoresFotografiasStamps, Coins Misc.SonsCiguateraVelocidadeTipo de nataçãoÁrea branquialOutras referênciasCérebrosVisão
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 13.9 - 21, mean 18.3 °C (based on 136 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00479 - 0.00691), b=3.08 (3.02 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.36 se; based on food items.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): Médio, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (K=0.8; tm=1; tmax=4;).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.38 - 0.85, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 177 [87, 389] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.42 [0.85, 2.66] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.2 [18.6, 21.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.503 [0.256, 0.989] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.4 [10.8, 56.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 33.4 [9.5, 115.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.46 [0.92, 2.40] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.