";} } ?> Mullus surmuletus, Surmullet : fisheries, gamefish

Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus, 1758

Surmullet
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Mullus surmuletus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Mullus surmuletus
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> Mulliformes (Goatfishes) > Mullidae (Goatfishes)
Etymology: Mullus: Latin, mullus = soft (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

marien demersaal; oceanodroom (Ref. 51243); diepte 5 - 409 m (Ref. 56504). Subtropical; 62°N - 14°N, 19°W - 42°E

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Eastern Atlantic: Western Norway, English Channel (rare in North Sea) to Dakar, Senegal and the Canary Islands, including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

Lengte bij maturiteit / Grootte / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm 16.1, range 15 - 26 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL mannelijk / geslacht onbekend; (Ref. 3397); common length : 25.0 cm SL mannelijk / geslacht onbekend; (Ref. 4845); max. gepubliceerd gewicht: 1.0 kg (Ref. 35388); max. gerapporteerde leeftijd: 11 Jaren (Ref. 92286)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Head is less steep. Barbels longer than pectoral fin. Body with longitudinal red and brown stripes. First dorsal fin with dark markings (Ref. 35388).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (bv. epibenthic)

Adults occur on broken and rough grounds but also found over sand and soft bottoms at depths less than 100 m. Depth range from 5-60 m (Ref. 07313) and from 305-409 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Feed on benthic organisms such as shrimps and amphipods, polychaetes, mollusks, and benthic fishes. Spawning occurs from May to July, eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 4845). Marketed fresh and frozen for steaming, pan-frying, broiling and baking (Ref. 9988).

Levenscyclus en paargedrag Maturiteit | Voortplanting | Paaien | Eieren | Fecunditeit | Larven

A determinate spawner (Ref. 41706).

Hoofdreferentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator : Randall, John E. | Medewerkers

Ben-Tuvia, A., 1990. Mullidae. p. 827-829. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7313)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 125652)

  Niet bedreigd (LC) ; Date assessed: 14 July 2014

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaar voor de mens

  Harmless





Gebruik door de mens

Visserij: commercieel; sportvis: ja
FAO - visserij: aanvoer, soortsprofiel; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 7 - 16.1, mean 10.2 °C (based on 549 cells).
Fylogenetische diversiteitsindex (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00818 - 0.00971), b=3.11 (3.08 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trofisch niveau (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.8 (2.2 - 4.6) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 24 growth studies.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179):  Gemiddeld, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 1,4-4,4 jaar (K=0.1-0.7; tm=2; tmax=10).
Prior r = 0.85, 95% CL = 0.56 - 1.28, Based on 12 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Low vulnerability (19 of 100).
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 88.5 [34.0, 166.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.552 [0.207, 1.853] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [18.7, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.797 [0.520, 1.220] g/100g ; Selenium = 21.1 [9.5, 47.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14.8 [5.5, 53.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.272 [0.163, 0.679] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.