Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Scaridae
(Parrotfishes) > Sparisomatinae
Etymology: Sparisoma: Latin, sparus = a fish with a golden head + Greek, soma = body (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 15 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 28°N - 4°N, 89°W - 51°W
Western Atlantic: Caribbean Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3802)
soft rays: 9. Young adults with black saddle-shaped markings at upper end of pectoral fin base; often vague, pale saddle-shaped area on top of caudal peduncle; and dorsal, anal, and pelvic fins red or orange (Ref. 26938).
Occurs in coral reefs and adjacent habitats, the young especially in seagrass beds. Juveniles or primary-phase adults rapidly assume a mottled pattern with which they blend with the substratum when they come to rest on the bottom. Feeds on benthic algae and seagrasses.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Although protogyny was propossed for this species (Ref. 27876), probably because testicular characteristics showed a secondary characteristic of sex-changed males, observations of overlapping size ranges of males and females, and males maturing at the same ages and sizes as did females, strongly suggest gonochorism (Ref. 103751).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.5 - 28.3, mean 27.6 °C (based on 471 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00716 - 0.01679), b=3.09 (2.97 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 1.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.7).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 48.6 [26.7, 96.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.849 [0.491, 1.325] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.5, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.103 [0.062, 0.161] g/100g ; Selenium = 44.9 [23.7, 87.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 15.8 [5.1, 52.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.52 [1.01, 2.39] mg/100g (wet weight);