Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 6°N, 49°E - 80°E
Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf and coasts of India.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 58.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 116549); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507)
Adults occur in shallow coastal waters to moderate depths. Carnivorous. Sold fresh in markets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
All populations matured as males during the first or second year (Ref. 52206).
Bauchot, M.-L. and M.M. Smith, 1984. Sparidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). volume 4. [var. pag.] FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3507)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.4 - 27.9, mean 26.8 °C (based on 130 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00906 - 0.02201), b=3.02 (2.89 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 2.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=11; K=0.28-0.38).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 169 [93, 304] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.13 [0.65, 2.06] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [17.1, 19.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.52 [0.26, 1.06] g/100g ; Selenium = 76.1 [33.5, 154.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.1 [3.9, 33.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.21 [0.77, 1.78] mg/100g (wet weight);