Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Solenostomidae
Etymology: Solenostomus: Greek, solen = tube + Greek, stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 25 m (Ref. 37816), usually 0 - 25 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5463)
soft rays: 17 - 22;
Vertebrae: 32 - 33. Color variable (from brown to pink or yellow) with small black and white spots; 2 elongate black spots between first 3 dorsal spines (Ref. 4263). Total body plates 27-35. Caudal fin truncate, rounded, or lanceolate. Caudal peduncle short or lost in large females (Ref. 48635). Pelvic fin sexually dimorphic, forming a brood pouch in females (Ref. 9829).
This uncommon species is found in coastal reefs and weedy areas (Ref. 5463) or lagoon reefs, often on algal flats or seagrass beds (Ref 90102). Monogamous, always in pairs (Ref. 52884). Females carry the eggs in their pelvic fins that are modified to form a brood pouch (Ref. 205). Feed on small crustaceans (Ref. 1602).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and genetic (Ref. 52884).
Orr, J.W. and R.A. Fritzsche, 1993. Revision of the ghost pipefishes, family Solenostomidae (Teleostei: Syngnathoidei). Copeia 1993(1):168-182. (Ref. 9829)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.1 - 29, mean 27.8 °C (based on 1498 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 135 [75, 254] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.774 [0.470, 1.280] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [17.5, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.135 [0.080, 0.240] g/100g ; Selenium = 37.1 [18.5, 75.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 77.9 [27.5, 207.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.52 [1.05, 2.16] mg/100g (wet weight);