Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Solea: Latin, solea = sandal (shoe); refered to the flat shape of the fish (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 60 m (Ref. 3200). Subtropical
Western Indian Ocean: South and East Africa, from about Cape Town, South Africa to Tanzania.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3200)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 47 - 55. This species is distinguished by the following set of characters: dorsal fin rays 61-71; anal fin rays 47-55 ; lateral line scales 88-116; caudal vertebrae 25-28; snout, rounded; scale width half its length, ctenii about one fourth of scale length; a small transparent membrane join base of dorsal and anal fins to base of caudal fin (Ref. 56201).
Usually found in estuaries. Juveniles are abundant on shallow sand banks (Ref. 3200).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Vachon, J., M. Desoutter and F. Chapleau, 2005. Solea bleekeri Boulenger, 1898, a junior synonym of Pegusa nasuta (Pallas, 1814), with the recognition and redescription of Solea turbynei Gilchrist, 1904 (Pleuronectiformes: Soleidae). Cybium 29(4):315-319. (Ref. 56201)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 27.9, mean 26.9 °C (based on 82 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00561 - 0.01702), b=3.07 (2.92 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.47 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .