Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 124 - 769 m (Ref. 27437). Deep-water; 49°N - 27°N, 126°W - 114°W
Eastern Pacific: Washington, USA to central Baja California, Mexico.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 35.0, range 30 - 36 cm
Max length : 61.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. published weight: 3.5 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 90 years (Ref. 52679)
soft rays: 6 - 8;
Vertebrae: 26. Head spines strong - nasal, preocular, supraocular, postocular, tympanic, parietal and nuchal spines present, coronals absent (Ref. 27437). Body dark red, skin above upper jaw, inside of mouth and rear edge of gill cover black (Ref. 27437). Branchiostegal rays: 7 (Ref. 36715).
Found on soft bottom in deep water, but young in shallower areas (Ref. 2850). Juveniles are pelagic (Ref. 36715). Viviparous, with planktonic larvae (Ref. 36715).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.7 - 9.9, mean 7.8 °C (based on 14 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00479 - 0.02087), b=3.08 (2.91 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (tmax=90; tm=20; K=0.04-0.06).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .