Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 49 - 201 m (Ref. 2850). Subtropical; 48°N - 27°N, 125°W - 114°W
Eastern Pacific: Copalis Head in Washington, USA to central Baja California, Mexico.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 28.0, range 25 - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. published weight: 1.0 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 33 years (Ref. 39277)
Commonly found on soft bottom (Ref. 2850). Viviparous (Ref. 34817).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.5 - 11.2, mean 9.7 °C (based on 13 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00479 - 0.02087), b=3.08 (2.91 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=33; tm=6;).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (61 of 100) .