Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 0 - 825 m (Ref. 6793), usually 165 - 293 m (Ref. 27437). Deep-water; 64°N - 24°N, 143°E - 110°W (Ref. 54884)
North Pacific: Honshu, Japan to Cape Navarin in the Bering Sea (but not in the Sea of Okhotsk) and La Jolla, California, and along the Aleutians from Stalemate Bank and Bowers Bank to the Alaska Peninsula. Stocks have suffered severe population decline due to overfishing (Ref. 27437).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 33.1, range 25 - 43.3 cm
Max length : 53.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56527); max. published weight: 2.1 kg (Ref. 56527); max. reported age: 103 years (Ref. 93933)
soft rays: 6 - 9;
Vertebrae: 26. Head spines weak - nasal, preocular, supraocular (may be absent), postocular, tympanic, parietal, and nuchal (may be absent) spines present, coronal spine absent (Ref. 27437). Long lower jaw with prominent forward directed symphyseal knob (Ref. 27437). Posterior margin of caudal indented (Ref. 6885). Bright to light red, usually with dark markings dorsally, may have some dark stippling on sides and dark blotch on caudal peduncle (Ref. 27437).
Abundant in offshore waters (Ref. 2850). Young pelagic up to age 3 (Ref. 6885). Grows slowly (Ref. 2850). Viviparous (Ref. 34817). Very important commercial rockfish in the North Pacific (Ref. 2850, 27437). Marketed as fillets (Ref. 2850). Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Produces young in small numbers, only about 300,000 when the fish is 20 years old.
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.1 - 6.4, mean 3.8 °C (based on 124 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00573 - 0.01386), b=3.09 (2.96 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 8.2 (7.7 - 10.3) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 29 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Musick et al. 2000 (Ref. 36717
); tmax=103; tm=7; K=0.1; Fec=31,000).
Prior r = 0.20, 95% CL = 0.13 - 0.30, Based on 4 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (55 of 100) .