Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Scaridae
(Parrotfishes) > Scarinae
Etymology: Scarus: Greek, skaros = a fish described by anciente writers as a parrot fish; 1601 (Ref. 45335); frenatus: From the initial phase (Ref. 2334) More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 25 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 32°N - 32°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to the Line and Ducie islands, north to southern Japan, south to Shark Bay, Western Australia and Lord Howe and Rapa islands. Absent from the Hawaiian Islands (Ref. 5439).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 17 - ? cm
Max length : 47.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 13619)
Usually found on exposed outer reefs, sometimes in very shallow water (Ref. 2334). Juveniles occur among coral and rubble of lagoon reefs. Grazes on benthic algae (Ref. 30573). Generally solitary (Ref. 1602). Often in schools of mixed species when feeding (Ref. 48636).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Parenti, P. and J.E. Randall, 2000. An annotated checklist of the species of the labroid fish families Labridae and Scaridae. Ichthyol. Bull. J.L.B. Smith Inst. Ichthyol. (68):1-97. (Ref. 35918)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29.3, mean 28.2 °C (based on 3162 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02188 (0.01250 - 0.03829), b=3.08 (2.93 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.45; tmax=20).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 40.6 [26.8, 63.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.875 [0.600, 1.326] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [16.8, 20.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.0908 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 21.7 [14.4, 33.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16.8 [5.3, 54.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.23 [1.63, 2.93] mg/100g (wet weight);