Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Sardinella: Latin and Greek, sarda = sardine; name related to the island of Sardinia; diminutive (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range - 50 m (Ref. 188), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 25°N - 23°S, 41°E - 137°E (Ref. 188)
Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar (but apparently not elsewhere in the western Indian Ocean), Madras, Indonesia, northern Australia. Chan's Hong Kong and Taipei specimens were most likely Sardinella hualiensis. Occurrence in Thailand (Ref. 1632) needs to be confirmed.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); common length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 12 - 23. Body deep; total scutes 29 to 32. Vertical striae on scales overlapping or sometimes continuous at center of scale, numerous small perforations on hind part of scale. Closely resembles S. hualiensis which has dark dorsal and caudal fin tips. Differs from other deep-bodied species chiefly in its lower gill raker count and presence of a dark spot at dorsal fin of origin.
Forms schools in coastal waters (Ref. 188, 75154).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.6 - 29.2, mean 28.6 °C (based on 786 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00518 - 0.01398), b=3.09 (2.95 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 404 [237, 685] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.04 [1.25, 3.37] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.5 [19.6, 21.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.411 [0.208, 0.803] g/100g ; Selenium = 98.7 [45.3, 182.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 33.3 [14.1, 85.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.65 [1.17, 2.35] mg/100g (wet weight);