Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; depth range 5 - ? m (Ref. 10999). Subtropical; ? - 30°C (Ref. 12741); 57°N - 31°N, 120°W - 71°W (Ref. 86798)
North America: St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Mississippi River basins from Quebec to Alberta in Canada, and south to northern Alabama and Louisiana in the USA. Introduced into Atlantic, Gulf and southern Mississippi River drainages.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 32.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 86798); common length : 35.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 4.0 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 18 years (Ref. 72496)
Inhabits sand and gravel runs, sandy and muddy pools and backwaters of small to large rivers (Ref. 86798). Less frequent in lake and impoundments (Ref. 86798). Larvae feed on cladocerans, copepods, and midge larvae, while juveniles consume fishes (Ref. 10294). Spawn between March and June (Ref. 10999) in pairs or small aggregations (Ref. 11003).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00631 (0.00349 - 0.01140), b=3.14 (2.97 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.68 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.23; tmax=7).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100).