Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 65 m (Ref. 117244), usually 0 - 25 m. Tropical; 32°N - 5°S, 117°W - 76°W
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Costa Rica and the Galapagos Islands. Probably occurring elsewhere.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 70.0, range 65 - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 28023)
Found over soft bottoms, near rocky or coral reefs; also near reef drop-offs (Ref. 12951). Occasionally near the surface and may jump out of the water. Often in schools, sometimes associated with Aetobatus narinari, the spotted eagle ray (Ref. 12951). Feeds on benthic crustaceans and mollusks. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and G. Notarbartolo di Sciara, 1995. Rhinopteridae. Gavilanes. p. 782-783. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para los Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9263)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.7 - 29.1, mean 24.2 (based on 266 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00463 - 0.02844), b=2.98 (2.76 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .