Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rhinopristiformes
(Shovelnose rays) > Rhinobatidae
Etymology: Rhinobatos: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek, batis, -idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335). More on author: Norman.
Considered as a junior synonym of Rhinobatos schlegelii in Last et al. 2016:459 (Ref. 108568). This species page will be removed.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 119 m (Ref. 9909). Subtropical
Western Pacific: off Taiwan and from the Philippines; about 2500 kilometers away, 2 specimens were caught in Thailand.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 56 - ? cm
Max length : 73.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9909); 63.0 cm TL (female)
Found inshore and offshore (Ref. 9909). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Biology little known (Ref. 9909). Utilized where it occurs, but details lacking (Ref. 9909).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V. and P.R. Last, 1999. Rhinobatidae. Guitarfishes. p. 1423-1430. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 9909)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.8 - 27.9, mean 25.3 (based on 130 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00316 (0.00158 - 0.00634), b=3.11 (2.93 - 3.29), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .