Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Garman.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 32 - 384 m (Ref. 108920), usually ? - 45 m (Ref. 7251). Tropical
Western Central Atlantic: Florida, USA to Yucatan, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 51.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Disc broadly rounded. Upper surface of disk is pale and has dark spots. Ocellus on each pectoral fin usually oval. Ocelli are closer (Ref. 7251). Lower surface white without dark markings (Ref. 6902).
Benthic (Ref. 51024). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 20.1 - 27.6, mean 24.8 °C (based on 34 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00275 (0.00128 - 0.00591), b=3.25 (3.08 - 3.42), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100).