Often misidentified as Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus, 1758) that it replaces in northwesternmost Europe..
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic. Temperate
Euorope: coastal areas of western Europe from Netherlands to the Garonne drainage (France), Ireland and southern Great Britain.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043)
(total): 8 - 10. Distinguished from congeners in Europe by having the following combination of characters: no lateral scutes; no scutes on side of caudal peduncle; dorsal fin with 8-10 spines; and caudal peduncle deeper than wide (Ref. 59043).
Adults inhabit shallow still water with dense vegetation. Feed predominantly on zooplankton, small crustaceans and benthic insects. Spawn for the first time at 1 year of age. Spawning takes place in April-June (Ref. 59043). Males build, guard and aerate the nest where the eggs are deposited (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
"Males build a nest hanging to aquatic vegetation and take care of eggs and larvae. Eggs hatch in 10-20 days. Dies at end of spawning season" (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00229 - 0.00999), b=3.02 (2.83 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming Fec < 1,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .