Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
(Goatfishes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Pseudupeneus: Greek, pseudes = false + Peneus, the name of a river. More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 300 m (Ref. 4845), usually 20 - 75 m (Ref. 27000). Tropical; 0°C - ; 35°N - 17°S
Western Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Morocco to Angola, including offshore islands.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4845); common length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4845)
Inhabits the coastal waters of the continental shelf, over sandy and muddy bottoms (Ref. 2683). Feeds on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 4845).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ben-Tuvia, A., 1990. Mullidae. p. 827-829. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7313)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.1 - 27.9, mean 25.2 °C (based on 104 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00646 - 0.01776), b=3.08 (2.94 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.41 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.5; tm=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 129 [68, 221] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.842 [0.403, 1.457] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.7, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.251 [0.154, 0.458] g/100g ; Selenium = 84.7 [46.8, 155.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.75 [3.94, 30.77] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.948 [0.514, 1.367] mg/100g (wet weight);