Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
() > Mullidae
Etymology: Pseudupeneus: Greek, pseudes = false + Peneus, the name of a river. More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 90 m (Ref. 9626), usually 0 - 35 m (Ref. 40849). Subtropical; 40°N - 30°S, 98°W - 28°W
Western Atlantic: Bermuda and New Jersey, USA to Santa Catarina, Brazil (Ref. 57756), including the Gulf of Mexico and throughout the Caribbean Sea (Ref. 9626).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3792)
(total): 8 - 9;
(total): 8. A series of three large blackish blotches on upper side of body beneath dorsal fins; color variable but usually pale, the scales of the back with reddish or yellowish brown edges and a central pale blue spot; diagonal light blue lines on head. Capable of displaying a pattern of large red blotches on head and body in less than a minute (Ref. 13442).
Inhabits shallow waters to depths of 90 m (Ref. 9626), especially over sand and rock bottoms in reef areas. Young juveniles often found on beds of seagrass, e.g. Thalassia. Feeds on small invertebrates (Ref. 9626). Flesh highly esteemed; marketed fresh and frozen (Ref. 3792). Traded as an aquarium fish at Ceará, Brazil (Ref. 49392).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawnng may either be in pairs or in small groups (Ref. 240).
Cervigón, F., 1993. Los peces marinos de Venezuela. Volume 2. Fundación Científica Los Roques, Caracas,Venezuela. 497 p. (Ref. 9626)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.8 - 28, mean 26.4 °C (based on 680 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00937 - 0.01225), b=3.10 (3.06 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.3-0.7).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .