Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
(Goatfishes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Pseudupeneus: Greek, pseudes = false + Peneus, the name of a river. More on author: Gill.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 67 m (Ref. 121813), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 33°N - 21°S, 118°W - 70°W
Eastern Pacific: Baja California, Mexico to Chile; one specimen was caught at the artificially warm outfall at the San Onofre (southern California, USA) nuclear power plant.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Adults inhabit sandy and muddy bottoms near the coast and in deep waters as well (Ref. 9322).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.7 - 28.9, mean 25.8 °C (based on 86 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00562 - 0.01231), b=3.18 (3.06 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (61 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 77.8 [29.3, 159.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.828 [0.438, 1.611] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.9, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.429 [0.263, 0.801] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.6 [12.1, 50.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 38.1 [11.7, 162.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.806 [0.434, 1.250] mg/100g (wet weight);