Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 5 - 143 m (Ref. 5951). Temperate; 55°N - 31°N, 82°W - 52°W
Western Atlantic: Labrador, Canada to Georgia, USA.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 27.4  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 64.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); max. published weight: 3.6 kg (Ref. 7251); max. reported age: 14 years (Ref. 52686)
Adults inhabit soft muddy to moderately hard bottoms (Ref. 5951). Feed predominantly in daytime on organisms living in, on or near the bottom; shrimps, amphipods, crabs, sea urchins and snails (Ref. 12232). Batch spawner (Ref. 51846).
Murdy, E.O., R.S. Birdsong and J.A. Musick, 1997. Fishes of Chesapeake Bay. Smithsonian Institution Press Washington and London. 324 p. (Ref. 27549)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.7 - 13.1, mean 6.1 (based on 303 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.5 (2.6 - 4.2) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 20 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.11-0.7(?); tm=2-3; tmax=10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .