Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Ephippidae
(Spadefishes, batfishes and scats)
Etymology: Proteracanthus: Greek, proteros = former + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Central Pacific: Malaya, Sumatra and Borneo.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 32.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7050)
soft rays: 13 - 15. Greenish brown dorsally, paler on flanks, silvery below, the scales dark edged, forming dark longitudinal lines. Body oblong and compressed, its depth 1.9 to 2.1 times in SL. Head length 3.4 to 3.7 times in SL. Dorsal head profile evenly curved from snout to dorsal-fin origin. Mouth subterminal, the upper jaw not protrusible, projecting somewhat in front of lower jaw. Jaws with bands of slender, flattened, tricuspid teeth, the middle cusp slightly longer than lateral cusps. No teeth on vomer or palatines. Five pores on each side of lower jaw. Preopercle smooth except for a few weak, skin-covered serrae at the angle. Opercle ending in 2 blunt points. Branchiostegal membranes broadly joined to isthmus. First gill opening constricted. Hypobranchial connected to quadrate by skin (Ref 43039).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari and S. Wirjoatmodjo, 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 221 p. (Ref. 7050)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 28 - 29.3, mean 28.8 °C (based on 1333 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .