Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Anthiadinae
Etymology: Pronotogrammus: Greek, pro = first, in front of + Greek, noton = back + Greek, gramma = signal, letter (Ref. 45335). More on author: Guichenot.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 65 - 230 m (Ref. 34841). Tropical; 32°N - 36°S
Western Atlantic: Florida, USA and Bermuda through the Greater Antilles to Rio Grande, Brazil (Ref. 47377).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 16.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 96848)
Adults are commonly found on outer continental shelf reefs. They primarily feed on zooplankton while common in the diet of larger predators like snappers and groupers (Ref. 96848).
Are monandric (males are secondary), protogynous hermaphrodites. About 50% of females transform into males at 7.63 cm SL and 1.0 yr of age (Ref. 96848). During the spawning period, oocytes are found to be in different stages of development indicating asynchronous oocyte development and indeterminate fecundity (Ref. 96848).
Anderson, W.D. Jr. and P.C. Heemstra, 1980. Two new species of Western Atlantic Anthias (Pisces: Serranidae), redescription of A. asperilinguis and review of Holanthias martinicensis. Copeia 1980(1):72-87. (Ref. 34841)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.3 - 25.8, mean 21.2 °C (based on 86 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00245 (0.00112 - 0.00538), b=2.91 (2.72 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 1.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .