Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range 5 - 60 m (Ref. 121239). Subtropical; 11°S - 44°S, 82°W - 70°W
Southeast Pacific: Huacho, Peru to Chiloé, Chile.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27569); max. published weight: 199.00 g (Ref. 53696)
Inhabits rocky and sandy bottoms and feeds on crustaceans, polychaetes and small fish.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Rosa, I.L. and R.S. Rosa, 1997. Systematic revision of the South American species of Pinguipedidae (Teleostei, Trachinoidei). Revta Bras. Zool. 14(4):845-865. (Ref. 27569)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.2 - 15.3, mean 12.1 °C (based on 27 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00603 (0.00279 - 0.01304), b=3.10 (2.91 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.56 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .