Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Chaetodontidae
Etymology: Prognathodes: Greek, pro = first, in front of + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335). More on author: Poll.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 12 - 140 m (Ref. 6943). Tropical; 17°N - 17°S, 26°W - 13°E
Eastern Atlantic: Senegal and Cape Verde to the Gulf of Guinea (4°S). Reported from Angola (Ref. 3166).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27000)
soft rays: 15 - 16. Body is silvery white with a black bar running anteriorly from the base of the dorsal spine to the lower jaw passing through the eye and second black bar running vertically from the ninth dorsal spine to the base of the anal fin rays.
A littoral species. Most specimens were collected on soft bottoms (Ref. 6943). Minimum depth range reported taken from Ref. 27000. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Maugé, L.A., 1990. Chaetodontidae. p. 837-840. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6943)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.3 - 25.9, mean 20.3 °C (based on 41 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02188 (0.01082 - 0.04423), b=3.01 (2.84 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .