Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 4 - 137 m (Ref. 9277), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico to Bahía de Sechura, Peru, including the Galapagos Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9277)
Inhabits offshore, soft bottom habitats and migrate into shallow reef areas to spawn in late spring and early summer. Mainly nocturnal. Stays buried in the sand or other soft substrate during the day. Rises up the water column at night to feed (Ref. 28023). Neither opercular nor dorsal glands is venomous (Ref. 57406).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B., 1995. Batrachoididae. Peje-sapos, sapos. p. 910-918. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9277)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.4 - 28.9, mean 23.3 °C (based on 152 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00631 (0.00362 - 0.01099), b=3.20 (3.05 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 258 [140, 514] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.913 [0.467, 1.718] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.8 [16.6, 19.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.273 [0.145, 0.520] g/100g ; Selenium = 55.3 [23.5, 119.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 84.8 [30.3, 251.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.12 [0.74, 1.67] mg/100g (wet weight);