Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Pomacanthidae
Etymology: Pomacanthus: Greek, poma, -atos = cover, operculum + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335). More on author: Gill.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 6 - 12 m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 32°N -
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Puerto Peñasco) and north of Bahía Magdalena (Bahía San Juanico), Mexico to Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9333); common length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9333)
A diurnal feeder or substrate feeder. Primary food item are sponges supplemented by tunicates, algae, bryozoans, hydroids and eggs. Adults often range widely over the reef in pairs or loose aggregations while juveniles are territorial and solitary. Oviparous (Ref. 240), monogamous (Ref. 52884). Breeding occurs from midsummer to early fall and juveniles are most abundant from August through November.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Protogyny has been proposed for this species awaiting confirmation (Ref. 103751). Monogamous mating is observed as both facultative and social (Ref. 52884).
Allen, G.R., 1985. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.4 - 29.1, mean 25.9 °C (based on 260 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03890 (0.01681 - 0.09007), b=2.88 (2.70 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.32 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 31.3 [18.8, 49.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.448 [0.283, 0.720] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [17.6, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.116 [0.075, 0.174] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.1 [16.8, 54.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 71.6 [20.6, 229.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.06 [0.71, 1.56] mg/100g (wet weight);