Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Pomacanthidae
Etymology: Pomacanthus: Greek, poma, -atos = cover, operculum + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 3 - 60 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 32°N - 23°S, 77°E - 169°E
Indo-Pacific: Ryukyu Islands to Malaysia and Indonesia to Solomon Islands, south to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334)
Juveniles prefer sheltered inner reefs while adults occur in areas of rich coral growth and high vertical relief of lagoon and seaward reefs. Adults semi-silty coastal to about 50 m depth, often seen in pairs (Ref. 48636). Occur solitary or mostly in pairs, are very elusive. Emits loud grunting sounds when harassed. Only the young make excellent aquarium fish (Ref. 4859).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.5 - 29, mean 28.1 °C (based on 764 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03890 (0.02164 - 0.06995), b=2.86 (2.70 - 3.02), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 29.6 [17.0, 49.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.466 [0.298, 0.763] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.4, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.108 [0.068, 0.167] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.7 [16.4, 58.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 56.7 [15.0, 201.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.13 [0.74, 1.70] mg/100g (wet weight);