Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - 15 m (Ref. 50610), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C -
Pacific Ocean: Commander Islands; Pribilof and Aleutian Islands to Washington, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
soft rays: 29 - 32. Light brown, gray, pale pea green, to purplish brown; breast and lower part of head lighter. Profile depressed over eyes, occiput slightly raised. Eye very small. Dorsal fin deeply notched anteriorly, forming lobe. Pyloric caeca numerous, matted closely together (more than 200) (Ref. 43939).
Ranges from tide pools to shallow water near shore (Ref. 43939).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mecklenburg, C.W., T.A. Mecklenburg and L.K. Thorsteinson, 2002. Fishes of Alaska. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxxvii +1037 p. (Ref. 43939)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Aquarium: public aquariums
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.6 - 10.8, mean 7 °C (based on 569 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00237 - 0.01161), b=3.15 (2.96 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .