Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 3 m (Ref. 86942), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 32°N - 24°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to the Marshall Islands, north to southern Japan, south to the southern Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia; throughout Micronesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1602); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9812)
Occur in coastal waters, mainly in reef flats and shallow lagoon reefs; often in silty habitats Form schools at the surface (Ref. 9710, 48637). Usually swimming in surface waters near freshwater run-offs. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Used as live bait in pole-and-line tuna fishing (Ref. 9812).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; bait: usually
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.2 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 2805 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00579 - 0.01576), b=2.90 (2.76 - 3.04), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.4 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 46.5 [20.4, 111.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.68 [0.43, 1.39] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [17, 21] % ; Omega3 = 0.158 [0.081, 0.334] g/100g ; Selenium = 37.7 [18.3, 82.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 46.4 [10.8, 193.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.52 [0.96, 2.41] mg/100g (wet weight);