Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Plectorhinchinae
Etymology: Plectorhinchus: Greek, plektos = plaited + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Forsskål.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range ? - 55 m (Ref. 68964). Tropical; 30°N - 35°S, 30°E - 82°E
Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf (Ref.80050) and Red Sea south to Natal, South Africa, Mauritius, Madagascar and Comoro Islands. Reported as likely at Seychelles (Ref. 1623) but Randall and van Egmond 1994 (Ref. 10685) believe otherwise.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5213); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)
Occurs in coastal reefs, sand banks and near estuaries (Ref. 2871). Often in large groups under ledges or along coral slopes by day (Ref. 9710). Flesh with an iodoform taste (Ref. 2799).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Smith, M.M. and R.J. McKay, 1986. Haemulidae. p. 564-571. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 2799)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 29.1, mean 27.5 °C (based on 575 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00692 - 0.02882), b=3.00 (2.83 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 42.2 [25.1, 74.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.518 [0.294, 0.891] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.7 [17.7, 21.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.144 [0.080, 0.225] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.4 [22.2, 67.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 81.6 [33.2, 188.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1 [1, 1] mg/100g (wet weight);