Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Plectorhinchinae
Etymology: Plectorhinchus: Greek, plektos = plaited + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Temminck & Schlegel.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: Arabian Sea to southern Japan.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 34 - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Inhabits coastal reefs, near rocky and coral areas (Ref. 9710). In Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Masuda, H. and G.R. Allen, 1993. Meeresfische der Welt - Groß-Indopazifische Region. Tetra Verlag, Herrenteich, Melle. 528 p. (Ref. 9137)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16 - 29.2, mean 27.8 °C (based on 3072 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.00835 - 0.04555), b=2.95 (2.75 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.49 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 32.2 [17.9, 58.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.463 [0.263, 0.901] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.2, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.115 [0.060, 0.193] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.5 [18.9, 64.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 51 [17, 147] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.904 [0.520, 1.386] mg/100g (wet weight);