Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Belonidae
Etymology: Platybelone: Greek, platys = flat + Greek, belone = needle; any fish with sharp pointed snout; also Pierre Belon, 1517-64, French zoologist born in Le Mans. Professor at the College de France, author of " La nature et diversité des poissons", 1551 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lesueur.
The 4 subspecies were upraised at species rank, as provisionally accepted names, , until more works are conducted on P. argalus susbepcies to fix their status.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - 2 m (Ref. 40849). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 37°N - 29°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Brazil (Ref. 7251), including the Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 17 - 20. Gill rakers present; caudal peduncle with a lateral keel, the lateral line passing ventral to it.
Occurs offshore; particularly abundant around islands (Ref. 5217); schools in sheltered parts of the reef (Ref. 48635). Feeds mainly on small fishes. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Böhlke, J.E. and C.C.G. Chaplin, 1993. Fishes of the Bahamas and adjacent tropical waters. 2nd edition. University of Texas Press, Austin. (Ref. 5521)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.1 - 28.2, mean 27.4 °C (based on 619 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00112 (0.00043 - 0.00289), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 46.7 [15.4, 127.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.802 [0.392, 1.577] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [16.7, 20.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.226 [0.094, 0.612] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.3 [8.0, 44.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 130 [34, 585] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.72 [0.43, 1.22] mg/100g (wet weight);