Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Leuciscidae
(Minnows) > Phoxininae
Etymology: Phoxinus: Greek, phoxinos = certain river fish (Ref. 45335); apollonicus: Named after Apollonia, an ancient name to delimitate Albany.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Temperate
Europe: River Moraca and its tributary Zeta, both belonging to the Lake Skadar drainage in Montenegro. This species possibly represents the endemic species of the Albanian ichthyogeographic district.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.8 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 105385)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 10. Phoxinus apollonicus is unequivocally distinguished from all other congeners by the reduced number of teeth on pharyngeal bones, usually four teeth on external row, but also 3 or 2, and 1 or 0 in the inner row. It also differs from other congeners by the combination of the following characters: the holotype has patches of breast scales connected anteriorly; the lateral line is nearly completed, posteriorly reaching the vertical line crossing the upper and the lower insertion of the caudal fin; flank of body with a marked mid-lateral longitudinal stripe extending from tip of snout to the base of caudal fin; a distinct spot at base of the caudal fin; a marked black spot on the opercular bone; depth of caudal peduncle, 2.2-2.8 times in its length and 1.8-2.5 in body depth; and eye diameter less than the preorbital distance(Ref. 105385).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bianco, P.G. and S. De Bonis, 2015. A taxonomic study on the genus Phoxinus (Acthinopterigy, Cyprinidae) from Italy and western Balkans with description of four new species: P. ketmaieri, P. karsticus, P. apollonicus and P. likai. Res. Wildl. Conserv. 4:1-17. (Ref. 105385)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00400 - 0.02500), b=3.06 (2.85 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .