Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Zoarcoidei
(Eelpouts and pricklebacks) > Pholidae
(Gunnels) > Pholinae
Etymology: Pholis: Greek, pholis, -idos = scale (Ref. 45335); schultzi: Named for L.P. Schultz, Curator of Fishes, U.S. National Museum (Ref. 6885). More on author: Schultz.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 18 m (Ref. 2850). Temperate; 54°N -
Eastern Pacific: Queen Charlotte Islands in British Columbia, Canada to Diablo Cove in central California, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found in the intertidal and subtidal, in exposed surge areas (tidal surge channels) and to 18 m depth.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 10.7 - 13.9, mean 11.9 °C (based on 109 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00186 (0.00077 - 0.00451), b=3.14 (2.94 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .