Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gobiiformes
(Gobies) > Oxudercidae
(Mudskippers) > Periophthalminae
Etymology: Periophthalmodon: Greek, peri = around + Greek, ophthalmos = eye + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Pallas.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - 2 m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: Singapore, Bedok, Changi, Pulu Obi, Pulu ayer Merbau, Banka, Sumatra, Java, Jakarta, Madura, Borneo, Celebes, Ambon, Waigeu, New Guinea, India, Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak, and Thailand (Ref. 3178). Known from the Mekong (Ref. 12693).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7050)
Found in the sea, estuaries, and lower reaches of rivers (Ref. 4833). Commonly found on muddy shores in estuaries and in the tidal zone of rivers (Ref. 12693). Lives in burrows in the mud and emerges on sunny days at low tide. Moves quickly across the mud, but can be caught with entangling nets strung above the ground or with cast-nets tossed onto the exposed mud (Ref. 12693). An amphibious air-breather that actively shuttles back and forth between rock pools and air (Ref. 31184). Gulps air at the surface of its burrow and then transports the air to the bottom of the burrow in order to aerate its eggs; preys upon fiddler crabs, insects and worms (Ref. 92840).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari and S. Wirjoatmodjo, 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 221 p. (Ref. 7050)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.5 - 29.3, mean 28.8 °C (based on 1920 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.00923 - 0.02984), b=3.06 (2.90 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .